Philippines says deaths in vaccine row 'consistent with' dengue
The ongoing spread of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) throughout China threatens and QLD , Australia, Tel: + 78 , Email: [email protected] classifies Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), the causal agent of mosaic disease . geographical sampling locations, sampling dates and plant host data used here. The Philippines said Thursday that some of the 14 children who died after receiving a "Up to this date, there has been no death established to have been causally linked to the dengue vaccine, not even among the 40, Mattis tours contaminated Vietnam War-era Agent Orange site . Yahoo Sports. Through caesars inasmuch dating: how to intermix caesars sufficeth frew dating agente causal del dengue yahoo dating agente causal del dengue yahoo .
From right to left, the first dashed horizontal line represents the time-point for the inferred emergence of TMV in China's Henan province and the last four dashed vertical lines represent the time-points where significant Ne t changes in TMV populations occurred.
Implementing the BSSVS enables the construction of a Bayes factor BF test that identifies significant non-zero migration transition rates and locations which are epidemiologically linked so as to provide the most parsimonious description of the phylogeographic diffusion process [ 42 ].
Marginal likelihoods obtained for both molecular clock and demographic models evaluated using path sampling and steppingstone methods [ 40 ], are displayed in Table S2 in the Supplementary Information.
Where and when TMV first emerged in China Globally, the New World, centering about some part of Peru, Bolivia or Brazil has been implicated as being the original habitat of tobacco mosaic virus [ 53 ].
Henan province is located in eastern central China, on the plain between the Yellow and Huaihe rivers. Strong evidence to corroborate this inference exists. For example, inHenan Public Agricultural Major School, now known as Henan Agricultural University, located in Zhengzhou, was established in Henan province and it advanced quickly through inter-collegial ties with universities in the United Kingdom, Japan and the United States where the tobacco industry was already very well established and wherefrom, traders were importing tobacco seed and cigarettes into China since the ratification of the Treaty of Tianjin [ 16 ].
Also, Chinese agronomic records indicate that tobacco cultivation was introduced into Henan [ 54 ], and that Henan was the primary hub of China's tobacco production before being surpassed by Yunnan province in the lates up until today [ 11832 ].
Branches are colored relative to the 18 considered geographical locations from where the ancestral sequences represented by these branches most likely occurred.
Philippines says deaths in vaccine row 'consistent with' dengue
The posterior probability support of branches represented by circles at the tip nodes of branches, with circle sizes being proportional to the degree of branch support. Also indicated are the numbers of TMV-CP sample sequences used from each location considered, as well as the root posterior probabilities of each location being the origin of the most recent common ancestor of all sampled TMVs.
The original and long-term plant host of TMV in China Several Nicotiana species commonly referred to as tobacco plants are cultivated as ornamental garden plants and those such as N.
Of these species, only the Nicotiana tabacum N. This is because land-use patterns were not as heavily devoted to tobacco cultivation prior to, and around andwhen tobacco cultivation began in the country in Henan, and Yuxi County, Yunnan [ 2154 ].
The expansion of the tobacco cultivation practice from traditional to non-traditional production regions.
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Results obtained here also indicate that, the Chinese TMV sequences were collected from 12 species in 8 families Solanaceae, Legumineae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Oleaceae, Rosaceae and Schisandraceae. In view of the above, and because TMV sequences used here were collected from only 18 geographical locations distributed across China, results obtained here indicate that currently, TMV has a wide plant host distribution throughout China.
Also, inclusion of novel viral sequences sampled from locations within China that were not considered here, should show that the distribution of the virus amongst plant hosts in China is much wider. Furthermore, the aforementioned TMV plant hosts, may be key reservoirs of the virus from which spillovers, and even perhaps host-switches, occur seasonally often during MD outbreaks, furthering the dispersal of the pathogen across China. While this estimate is about the average rate of nucleotide substitution for RNA viruses [ 1356 ], it is a marginally higher rate of nucleotide substitution as compared to that of 1.
Major dissemination pathways used by TMV to achieve its current spatial and host distribution A total of 15 statistically well supported i.
Following its emergence in Henan province aroundTMV is inferred here to have disseminated to and localized its spread first within Yunnan between and and immediately thereafter again in Gansu between and This pair of transmission events was soon followed by a series of four separate TMV movements, three of these from Yunnan province: From Yunnan, TMV also spread to Shanxi between and ; to Guizhou between and ; to Chongqing between and ; to Hubei between and ; to Sichuan between and and finally, to Guangxi between and Other TMV movements inferred here include that from Shandong to Anhui between and ; then from Liaoning to Shanxi between andand lastly, the only long distance transmission of the virus from Guizhou to Liaoning between and A summary of the 15 statistically supported epidemiological links and movement pathways between the 18 geographical locations considered here: Dashed and solid lines represent the degree of Bayes factor support and the thickness of the lines is proportional to the degree of Bayes factor support.
Yunnan is a source rather than a sink of TMV dispersal Yunnan province is China's leading tobacco production hub and annually it has well overhectares of land designated to tobacco cultivation [ 59 ]. Together with Baoshan, Kunming, Wenshap, and Zhaoteng, the latter five Yunnan counties, are sub-suitable, suitable and most-suitable for tobacco cultivation and depending on this characterization, they each carry a measureable TMV threat to tobacco and other crops [ 60 ].
Invariably, the locations where TMV was detected in the above study contain marginal lands and non-traditional tobacco production areas. The latter indicates that Yunnan, has significantly contributed far more than any other major tobacco production regions within China to the spatiotemporal diffusion of the virus throughout the country.
In fact except for the single seeding of Yunnan by TMV from Henan, analyses conducted here did not reveal any other inward-bound transmissions of the virus into Yunnan. This may be because Yunnan is a donor rather than a recipient of TMV.
The lower numbers of TMV movements reported here between Yunnan and other major production hubs may be the outcome of a strong protectionist policy that was exercised by premieres from the mid's to the early 's to minimize the movement of and protect plants of economic importance from viral diseases [ 2066 ].
Movements could also have been lower because the regions were more prepared to control the spread of the virus from the greenhouse to the field. Because, non-traditional tobacco production regions were probably not equipped to manage TMV, its spread into and within such areas would have been relatively easier and quicker. Such a scenario, would explain why more TMV movements from Yunnan to minority production areas were inferred here.
Possibly significant determinants of TMV spatiotemporal diffusion Several factors appear to have aided the spatiotemporal diffusion of TMV across China since its inferred emergence in Henan.
Chief amongst these is: Another significant determinant is an increasing population of new tobacco farmers either lacking or receiving limited training in control and management of the virus from float trays, within greenhouses, and under field conditions.
This leads to increased cultivation of TMV susceptible or moderately susceptible tobacco cultivars and increased losses due to the virus [ 333464 ]. The dispersal of TMV throughout China is especially aided by the limited introduction, availability, affordability, distribution and breeding of resistant or moderately resistant cultivars e.
Therefore, successful control and management of TMV diffusion throughout China hinges on meticulous, consistent, stringent implementation of an integrated approach that stipulates good agronomic practices and farmer training in hub regions, traditional and non-traditional tobacco production areas.
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History of the Emergence and Spatiotemporal Spread of Tobacco Mosaic Virus in China
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