Minnesota's Historic Bridges Denis Gardner technical leaflet 95, “Bridge Truss Types: A Guide to Dating and Identifying,” History News 32 (May Ibid; Eric Kudalis, “Harry Wild Jones,” in “Historic Profiles through the Decades,” Architecture. bridge truss types a guide to dating and identifying caterpi. 2 posts dating site names leaked flying wild alaska ariel and john dating site. JACK E. BOUCHER. BRIDGE TRUSS TYPES: a guide to dating and identifying. By T. Allan Comp, Senior Historian and. Donald Jackson, Civil Engineer.
As Kincaid sets about photographing the Rosamunde Bridge from below, Francesca walks into the darker areas under the wooden roof.
She spies on Robert through cracks in the wall. The heat of the summer afternoon is joined by the heat from her own unexpected passion and she begins to sweat.
He moves in closer with the camera. Soon they are very close indeed but neither dares give words to these unforeseen feelings, and so he returns her to the farmhouse. During the night she decides she must see him again. In the darkness she drives to Rosamunde and leaves a message for him since she knows he will finish his photographic work there before going on to Hollywell Bridge.
Only later does he read her message and call her. They agree to meet the next day at the Hollywell Bridge. On that third day begins a love affair of great intensity and passion. The bridges have brought them together, but she finally realizes that she cannot leave her husband and children for an unknown, but potentially far more satisfying life.
She will remain in the county with the beautiful, poignant bridges. He will take his photos of the bridges and turn them in to the magazine for which he works. The bridges brought them together but they cannot keep them together. Through letters and journals Francesca informs her grown children, after her death, of her great love.
Although the physical love affair lasted only four days, the remains of the lovers would be mingled for eternity. Other lovers brought together because of a bridge are found in the French film The Bridge Un Pont entre deux rives, Men from the surrounding area eagerly seek jobs on the construction site.
One is Georges, a hard-working man with a wife, Mina, and teenage son. Before Georges secures the job, his wife has already begun working on the country estate of a wealthy woman. Mina is very pretty and vivacious, Matthias is handsome and younger than Georges, so a passionate love affair is virtually unavoidable.
With his ability to give Mina a beautiful home, Matthias persuades her to leave her husband and son and move in with him, even though he has left a wife behind in Nice.
Georges is completely devastated at being abandoned by his wife. The bridge that is being built over the Norman landscape is never really seen in the film. We see only a drawing of the proposed bridge and the foundations being laid. This serves as a perfect metaphor for the growing affair between Matthias and Mina. While the bridge between Georges and Mina collapses during the course of the film, we see only the early construction of the bridge between Mina and her lover.
The connection between bridges and romance is so strong that sometimes the bridge need only be nearby for us to assume passions will be ignited. Love affairs blossom, wither, and renew themselves in clear view of the majestic bridge. Jazz musician Bleek Gilliam lives in a comfortable neighborhood in Brooklyn near the bridge. Torn between an intelligent, sensitive Indigo and a beautiful, demanding Clarke, Bleek is most of all in love with his trumpet.
As he alternates between the two women, faithful to neither, the bridge is often glimpsed through the windows of his apartment by night and by day. It serves as a reminder of the lofty achievements of the human mind and body, a metaphor for the wonderful music Bleek has begun to create.
At one point, abandoned by both Indigo and Clarke, Bleek is seen playing his trumpet on the upper level of the Brooklyn Bridge at night. His misery creates a moody, romantic, mournful piece. Here, the Brooklyn Bridge provides a perfect place to leave behind the confusion of relationships and the millions of chattering, frenetic people. Bleek is in transition, not thinking of suicide, but needing to be completely alone and separated from both Manhattan and Brooklyn.
Later, after Bleek and his girlfriend Indigo have gotten back together, they stand at one of the windows of his apartment and embrace, the Brooklyn Bridge clearly visible in the background. During their outdoor wedding, the huge bridge looms over the ceremony. It is always present whether they are in love or in pain. For a while it represents separation but finally signifies reconciliation and reconnection.
Young men or boys can also be brought together by bridges.
Whether balancing on the railing of a bridge high above a river or plunging down into the waters, young men have used bridges to test their bravery foolishness, for the unlucky and to cement friendships between the worthy and the fearless.
Youth is a time to defy Death. Such acts make the testosterone rise and the adrenalin flow. A successful challenger always feels much more alive after the test. The dead loser posthumously testifies to human limits. Physically active boys often base their friendships on evidence of power, strength, and daring.
This connection between bridges and tests of manhood is quite old. Mircea Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane: The film opens with a shot of a gray, uninviting, but powerful Brooklyn Bridge, followed by a view of the long, sweeping Verrazano-Narrows Bridge.
Tony Manero and his friends live in Bay Ridge, Brooklyn and see no reason to go into an intimidating Manhattan, since the women they date, the jobs they hold, the discos they frequent, and the dreams they have are all in Brooklyn.
But they often go to the Verrazano Bridge, which connects Brooklyn to a non-threatening Staten Island, to impress each other with their death-defying balancing acts. A low-angle shot looks up at the imposing bridge. One pretends to fall but really just jumps down to a lower level.
They even leap into the air and catch on to cables. Tony, the best disco dancer of the group, moves along a ledge like Gene Kelly.
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These young men, just barely out of their teens, obviously know the bridge quite well. Bobby C, who appears to be the youngest of the four, stays in the car and mutters about what jerks they are. Just as he is afraid to test his manhood through dangerous acts on the bridge, he also seems to be afraid to pursue women as relentlessly as his friends. He is the outsider and is allowed to hang out with the guys strictly because he has a car. Near the climax of the film, the four guys drive to the Verrazano Bridge for more fun and games.
Annette, the young woman who loves an uncaring Tony, gives up her virginity to Double J in the back seat of the car while Bobby C drives. At the bridge Joey gets out of the car and balances on his hands on the railing.
Double J gets off Annette and onto a rail with his pants down around his legs. Annette gets out of the car and races about the walkway, threatening to jump off the bridge, but Tony grabs her.
Finally overcoming his fear and perhaps hoping to forge a friendship with Tony, Bobby C climbs up some cables and holds on with only one hand.
His need to show off his fearlessness escalates. His plunge reminds us of the association between bridges and death in many films. Many bridge-related films have begun with a scene in which one character is intent on severing all connections with humanity and life.
Inevitably such film suicides are usually unsuccessful ones, thwarted for dramatic purposes. The intended leap to death must be unsuccessful for there to be a story. Furthermore, such an opening scene tells us something about the painful mental state of the would-be suicide before any dialogue is spoken. Girl on the Bridge La Fille sur le ponte, France, opens with Adele, a year-old woman, standing outside the railing of a beautiful metal bridge over the River Seine in Paris.
Boats pass under her. She clasps her coat against her body and inches forward. One hand loosens from the railing. She stares down at the water and gasps for breath and bravery. He despaired of hiring new targets until he realized that bridges were excellent employment agencies where he could find suicidal women just about to give up on life.
Voila, instant employee, if he talked them out of their leap. So, Gabor asks Adele if she would like to have him hurl knives at her rather than hurl herself from the bridge. That way, her life could end accidentally some night as a result of one of his mistakes. At first she misinterprets his offer as a perverse pickup line: Gabor, perhaps intrigued by her or, at a minimum, in desperate need of a new target, dives in and saves her.
In the hospital, Adele, Gabor, and a third man lie in full-size heating bags. After a series of successful nightclub shows and wonderful adventures along the European side of the Mediterranean, Adele and Gabor separate. Alone in Istanbul, Gabor walks over to a bridge. We discover that he was going to jump from the footbridge over the Seine the night he met Adele, but the girl with big sad eyes standing outside the railing gave him a new lease on life.
Their previously Platonic love affair is poised to become complete. In this way, the bridges, intended to provide a transition to death, become a place of new connections to life. Red Squirrel La Ardilla Roja, Spain, also opens with a young person standing on a bridge contemplating a leap into darkness. Jota, a musician, tries to find the courage to jump off a bridge into a rocky stretch of ocean along the Atlantic coast of the Basque region of Spain.
Suddenly a motorcycle, pursued by a speeding car, comes racing along a city street and hits the guard railing of the bridge not far from where Jota stands. He sees the motorcycle and its rider fly through the air and crash onto the sandy beach below that portion of the bridge.
The car rushes away from the scene. Jota becomes more concerned about saving the life of the motorcyclist than destroying his own. He runs down to the beach to assist the person in the helmet. Soon he discovers that the motorcyclist is a young woman, whom he is able to talk back into consciousness. After the ambulance arrives, Jota accompanies the young woman to the hospital. Thus the bridge has served as a site of attempted suicide and attempted homicide, both of which are avoided, and becomes the location for the beginning of a romantic relationship.
One description of an early Austrian sound film, Sonnenstrahlplants it firmly in this category of bridges bringing together a suicide and a savior. In Vienna an unemployed young man, Jean Durand, is locked out of his flat by his landlady. Finding himself all alone, he goes to the river to commit suicide. Suddenly a young woman jumps from the bridge above him. Without thinking, he dives into the water and saves her. Then begins their relationship. Americans have learned to leap and love, also, but with various twists.
They decide to renew an old suicide pact. If neither one finds a meaningful, fulfilling relationship within 28 days, they will hand-in-hand jump off the Brooklyn Bridge. Halfway to D-Day, they pack a picnic lunch and walk out on the bridge just to get familiar with it. Soon they start dating new people and the suicide pact seems null and void. Joe has finally met the woman he has been spying on and painting for months. Lucy meets Bwick, an eccentric artist.
But failure is inevitable in both cases. Stuck in a horrible traffic jam, she gets out of the cab and walks along the upper pedestrian passage.
They sit quietly with the traffic streaming by below them. Finally they both realize they are in love with each other. They kiss, the music rises. An aerial shot of the Brooklyn Bridge provides a stunning exit for a rather awful movie.
The bridge, which was to be the site of their final moments, has become the setting for a budding love affair.Mechanical Engineering: Trusses, Bridges & Other Structures (6 of 34) What are Tension & Compression
Laughing Sinners US, tells the story of the spiritual downfall and redemption of Ivy Stevens, a vivacious nightclub performer, who thinks she is loved by a traveling salesman.
When he leaves her a farewell note written on a menu, she collapses. Frogs are heard on the soundtrack to suggest a body of water in this obviously studio-bound film. The stone rail belongs to a bridge and she is about to jump. Inevitably she joins the Salvation Army and sings on the street corners instead of in a dancehall, but she is happy. Despite a momentary downfall with the same traveling salesman, she is reunited with Gable and all is well.
This movie may have spawned an inordinate number of attempted suicides in with great hopes of a surrogate Clark Gable appearing just in time.
As silly as it seems, Laughing Sinners was no more unrealistic than many other early talking films. Friendship, rather than romance, can also be an outcome of an incipient suicide being averted by a stranger on a bridge. Dream with the Fishes US, follows a depressed man from a liquor store out onto a suspension bridge, probably the Golden Gate.
Terry takes big gulps from his large bottle of liquor to find courage for his intended jump. A smalltime crook, Nick, has trailed him with robbery on his mind. When Nick takes the death-desiring man back to his apartment, Terry is shocked to see that the woman living there is the very one he has been spying on with binoculars.
He would sit in his darkened apartment and watch her with binoculars. Terry has seen her crying many times alone and now deduces that her relationship with Nick must be very painful. The attempted suicide on the bridge could appear to be leading to a relationship Terry has desired for so long.
But this film has a surprise in store. Nick has a terminal illness and wants to travel some more before his death. Nick and Terry go off on a series of adventures, mainly silly or criminal. The bridge actually created a friendship and gave Terry a new will to live. Likewise Finding North US, He strips off his clothing to leave this world as he came into it.
Rhonda, a bank clerk, is driving across the bridge with her friends when they see the naked man standing on the railing. All Rhonda finds on the bridge is a large shoe. She thinks the man has gone over the edge into the river.
Or so she expects. Through a series of contorted stretches of reality, Rhonda ends up going with Travis to Texas. Despite all odds, they finally become inseparable friends after she realizes he is gay. Both Dream with the Fishes and Finding North begin with pessimistic scenes on bridges and end with their opposite in the same location. Neither Terry nor Travis acquires a replacement love but a new friendship which will sustain them for a while.
In The Seventh Veil UK, a psychologist tries to understand why a world-famous pianist, Francesca Cunningham, would try to commit suicide by jumping off a bridge. Larsen desperately wants to know the events and persons who drove her to this state and help her. He makes Francesca talk about her past — a past with a controlling guardian, Nicholas, no friends, kept apart from the man she loved and forced to practice the piano hours a day. All his life George has sacrificed for the business which he inherited and became unwillingly attached to.
Even as a year-old, he saved his younger brother from drowning in an icy pond but lost his hearing in one ear. After the evil banker, Mr.
Potter, tells George that he is worth more dead than alive, George decides on his action. He gets drunk at a local bar and then walks out onto a bridge over a raging river.
When George explains why he wanted to die and wishes he had never been born, the film turns darker as Clarence escorts George around town to prove what an unpleasant place Bedford Falls would be if George had never been born. Finally convinced of the value of his life and his contributions to the communal welfare, George rushes back to the bridge and proclaims that he wants to live.
Sometimes attempted suicide brings undesirable friends. As he stands on the rail trying to secure the courage, a former friend, Milt Manville, just happens to ride by on his bicycle. Completely unaware of why Harry would be balancing on the railing, Milt strikes up a conversation and invites him back to his house in the suburbs to meet his wife Ellen.
But Milt has an agenda greater than friendship. After drawing Harry and Ellen together, Milt is finally free to be with his true love, Linda. They begin plotting how to get Harry out of their lives. Milt rushes over to push Harry off the bridge but falls into the water himself. A distraught Ellen asks Harry to prove his love for her by committing suicide.
Through a series of slapstick events, all three end up in the water, only to be saved by Linda who just happens to be jogging by. It appears that Ellen and Milt will be back together and Harry and Linda will begin a relationship. This comedy, no matter how silly it gets at times, suggests that saving a friend from suicide may not be entirely wise. Here the bridge has been the setting for suicide, attempted and foiled.
Then it becomes the site for premeditated murder but quickly shifts into being the scene of near-tragedy, heroism, and love, both renewed and brand new. Eugene Kim wrote a description of Something Wild US, that would indicate that the rescuer can become problematic.
Keeping the attack to herself, Mary Ann runs away, seeking to lose herself in Manhattan by renting a seedy flat and taking a job in a dime store.
Stormy weather or earthquakes can also make bridges very dangerous places, as can faulty construction. Many films have capitalized on fear and danger by placing tragic deaths on bridges. Furthermore, some suicides from cinematic bridges are successful. This association of death and the dangerous bridge is an ancient one. The Zarathustrian legend of the Chinvat Bridge is a very significant one relating the bridge with the journey of the soul.
The soul must attempt to cross this bridge at the dawn of the fourth day after the death of the body. For the good soul the bridge is the width of nine lances and thus easily crossed.
For the evil the bridge becomes the width of a razor blade, thereby casting the wretch down into the deep pit of hell. Those deemed blessed are welcome at the other end of the bridge by a lovely young girl who ushers them into paradise. Within early Christianity St.
Islamic writers have discussed the same image of the bridge. In both traditions, the unjust fall into hell from the bridge. Native American stories also use the motif of the bridge in death.
Attuned to popular cultural motifs, some filmmakers have mined the rich imagery of bridges associated with death. In a low-rent but atmospheric horror film, Carnival of Souls US,teenagers drag-race across the Lecompton Bridge, a steel bridge outside Lawrence, Kansas. The rest of the film shows a confused Mary thinking she is alive and trying to avoid the inevitable reunion with other spirits. The DVD-version of the film contains the information that the steel bridge has been replaced by a newer more boring concrete bridge.
Susie Q US, is another film in which a young woman dies when her car is knocked off a bridge.
She, or her spirit, also continues to wander around, but in this case she is trying to give aid and comfort to survivors rather than simply accept her own death, according to one description. Catch Steve Lambert might as well be the spirit of a dead man wandering the earth. He lost his wife, his son, and his reasons for living. No one goes over the railing but the impact of the collision with a large truck was quite severe. For Catch the bridge becomes a place of transition, not to death, but eventually to a new life with the police officer.
For his wife and child it is strictly the site of transition to death. The setting remained the American Civil War. The film opens with a close-up of a posted sign: A hanging rope with a noose is thrown over the truss work above the roadway.
The condemned man is made to stand on a plank of wood hanging out over the edge of the bridge above the river. His legs and ankles are tied together. Surprisingly the prisoner is in civilian clothes.
Truss: Definition, Design & Types
A soldier stands on the other end of the plank, ready to step off and send the man plummeting to his death at the end of the rope. It is brilliant and cruel. There is no dialogue, just natural sounds of the river, birds, an owl, footsteps, the creaking of wood. Other soldiers stand at attention and watch the proceedings.
The sun begins to rise over the horizon. The rope is finally put around his neck. His watch is taken. The prisoner begins to cry. The soldier steps off the safe end of the board, and the man plunges…. He frees his bound hands, swims underwater, gets shot at, and miraculously saves himself. He gets to a distant bank of the river and rushes joyfully and breathlessly through the countryside towards his home.
It has all been his imagination, seeming minutes of activity held within a few seconds of falling, breaking his neck, and dying. He has indeed made his fatal meeting with Death on the bridge. The association of bridges, car accidents, drowning, and political careers has been inevitable since Ted Kennedy drove off Chappaquidick Bridge inresulting in the death of a young political assistant. Blow Out US, puts a new twist on the subject. A sound recorder for schlock-horror films is out late at night in a Philadelphia park gathering new material.
Jack John Travolta stands patiently on a footbridge under a much grander bridge with a beautiful large arch. He records the conversation of a couple of lovers and the natural sounds of a frog and an owl. Suddenly through his headphones come the sound of a speeding car, a gun shot, a tire blowing out, and then the crash of the car into the guard rail of the bridge. As he sees the car fall into the water and begin to sink, he throws his equipment down and runs along the graceful arc of the footbridge before diving into the creek to save the young woman passenger, Sally.
As he discovers, the tire was blown out by a rifle shot and the dead man in the car was to be a major candidate for the American presidency.
Three lives on the two bridges were irrevocably changed that night. A bridge in The Contender US, is used as a means to further a political career. Or such was the intention. Governor Hathaway, strongly considered as a replacement for the recently deceased Vice-President of the US, is fishing with a journalist. As they sit calmly talking and casting their lines out from the rowboat, a car comes crashing off the bridge into the murky waters nearby. Seemingly without thought or concern for his own safety, the governor plunges into the water and tries to save the woman driver from her watery tomb.
In the eyes of the nation this man is a hero simply for his effort. Edward Kennedy and the accident at Chappaquidick. Incredulous, the governor splutters that he tried to save the young woman rather than leave the scene of the accident. The President says that the public will only remember a bridge, a politician, and a death.
Details will fade away. Governor Hathaway had paid the young woman to drive her car off the bridge so he could save her. However, the plan failed and she drowned.
Neither he nor his wife seems very disturbed by her death; they are more upset about his political trajectory stopping its ascent. When the plot unfolds, the governor is arrested for manslaughter. A bridge in Keeper of the Flame US, is likewise used as a tool, but in this case as a weapon of murder. The film opens on a stormy night as a car races along a muddy road and suddenly over a precipice where a bridge was expected to be.
Robert Forrest, wealthy leader of the Forward America Association, is killed in the accident at the washed-out bridge on his own estate. America mourns, especially young boys who had found a leader in Forrest and an ideal in his organization. Reporters descend on the small town to investigate the death.
The writer gets onto the grounds of the Forrest estate and looks at the wooden bridge. Its middle section has been ripped away by flood waters, but he wonders if the destruction was somehow helped along by someone. He realizes after a while that she is indeed hiding something.
There are various red herrings, including hints that Forrest was not so universally loved by some of the people around him. Forrest with a horseshoe he discovered underneath the broken bridge, he suggests that she had been at the scene that night and knew the bridge was washed out. He states that she could have warned her husband but did not and is therefore a murderer. She admits to all of this but explains why she let her husband die.
His organization, Forward America Association, was essentially a fascist movement created for the American people. Forrest was under the remains of the bridge, but she chose to use the washed-out structure as a weapon in the fight for American freedom.
Had Forrest crossed the bridge successfully, the US would have been forever changed. In this case the bridge served a higher political purpose as an instrument of death. The accident that can cause even greater numbers of deaths is the collapse of a bridge. Building bridges became a science and an art only through trial and error.
Human beings suffered for those errors. Wind, earthquakes, poor design can all contribute to this most horrifying form of accidental death. When a bridge collapses, unwilling pedestrians or vehicle passengers are taken to their deaths in the river or rocky depths below, as in the May collapse of several spans of the bridge at Webbers Falls, Oklahoma. As far as the cinema is concerned, the combination of bridge collapse and death may provide an excuse for the philosophical question: Why did those innocent people die so horribly?
Aboard the Geneva-Stockholm express train is a terrorist deliberately spreading a highly infectious and deadly pneumonic plague. With scheduled stops in Basel, Paris, Brussels, Amsterdam, and Copenhagen before reaching Stockholm, the disease and terror could spread throughout Europe. An American Army intelligence officer, in charge of stopping the potential mega-disaster, orders the train to be diverted into Poland, where the passengers can be isolated until treated or allowed to die.
The destination for the hapless train is a Nazi concentration camp but the railway tracks lead over the Cassandra Crossing, whose bridge is highly risky. The Polish government questions the stress tolerance of the old cantilevered bridge, unused since As the American colonel seems to welcome the information, which increases the possibility of containing the disease with a massive train wreck, foreboding shots of the bridge add to the tension.
There are stone anchoring piers on each side of the valley with one massive cantilever arch which groans in the wind. As the train rushes on, a doctor-turned-hero Richard Harris works feverishly to separate some cars from the long body of the train, so at least some people might be saved from the impending disaster.
The locomotive begins hurtling across the bridge, but the stress is too much and the bridge begins to come apart and collapse. Long shots show the sickening sight of railroad cars plunging into the abyss below. Bridge and train become indistinguishable in the twisted mass of steel. Metal beams puncture the cars like knives.
The entire cantilevered section with its roadway collapses. Only some of the disconnected cars survive, but they are still on a highly unstable section of the bridge.
All must try to exit through the last car of the train. In The Cassandra Crossing the presentation of an unstable bridge in Poland was perhaps a way of attacking Communism, but the film also portrayed the American general as cold-hearted and ruthless in his desire to contain the disease, truly a Cold War attitude.
So, each side gets bad marks in this film. There was no stable bridge at the time to bring the two opponents together and people would unnecessarily die for lack of a political bridge between the two systems. Survivors inevitably ponder death in disasters, natural and man-made. Did God want them in heaven, were they evil, did their relatives commit sins, is God punishing our society? A local priest, perplexed why God chose these five to die, goes to town to investigate who the five were.
It is near the French border. The Oriental Express is speeding from Paris to Constantinople. Lightning strikes and several beautiful arches are instantly shattered.
There is much screaming, water pouring in, and railroad cars rolling down the hillside in flames. The Jew carries a baby to safety. A prisoner unlocks his handcuffs from the wrist of a dead guard but stops to help two Americans lift a portion of the bridge off a trapped woman. Even though the bridge has collapsed and killed perhaps hundreds of people, a different sort of bridge is momentarily constructed between different nationalities as they work together to rescue the living.
Primarily, though, the director Michael Curtiz wanted to show the train that was Europe heading for the disaster of World War I. The collapsing bridge might forge new relationships while destroying so many lives and cultural systems unnecessarily. He seems to imply that the war would be as much a natural disaster as a man-made one. Sometimes the attempted suicides from a bridge are all too successful. Many film suicides are aborted so the unhappy person has a new chance in life, but others jump, die, and disappear.
In the diagram, the triangles used in the bridge are built to deal with lateral wind. The uneven force that the bridge takes from wind is then safely distributed by the stability of the truss design. Truss Diagram Types and Designs of Trusses Beyond the use of triangular forms to give the truss stability, there is no specific design that determines the look of a truss.
The design of a truss is truly determined by how and what the truss is used for. If the truss is used in buildings or towers, then the truss is designed to deal with shifting stresses that building may face, from wind and weather, or to carry weight evenly and safely to the foundation.
By contrast, a truss used in a bridge will use triangular patterns to ensure that the strain of a train or car is safely distributed to columns or to the land. While there are many applications of the truss, from products to architecture, they are most commonly used in roofs, bridges and towers. Roof trusses are frequently used in the construction of slanted roofs to stabilize shifting weight that they are subject to in the course of their lifetime.
The roof you are sitting under right now may be subject to snow that piles up on top of it or wind that hits it from one direction or another. The truss makes sure that the changing forces that the roof may encounter, known by architects as live load won't cause it to shift or collapse.